Saturday, November 18, 2017

Stealing and Poisoning the Land



Last Thanksgiving, Native Americans were being beaten with batons, bitten by dogs, soaked by high pressure water hoses in winter, and plowed over by vehicles as they tried to protect their access to clean water.

This Thanksgiving these same native people are cleaning up a 200,000 gallon oil spill on their South Dakota reservation, courtesy of the oil pipeline that they were protesting.

This is the world of Trump.

Remember. Vote.

Styling



A couple walking on the streets of New York City, 1914

Get Along Little Doggy



This Jack Russell was raised with Kelpies.

Thursday, November 16, 2017

The Electronic Lynching of Al Franken

A friendly coincidence? 

I sometimes joke
that the Burns family motto is Quaedam postulo occidere; "Some things need killing."

And yet, while our family recognizes that there is a place for hanging, there is never a time for lynching.

What's the difference between a hanging and a lynching? It's a few days or weeks of time, and a reasonable examination of the facts within a logical process and structure. It doesn't have to take long, but it should take at least a few days.

Which brings me to the Lunatic Left which, today, was so quick to toss Senator Al Franklin on the pyre.

It seems a woman has accused Senator Franken of being both a bad comic (he took a mugging forced-perspective picture that was in very poor taste) and of forcefully kissing her in an unwanted manner during a comedy skit rehearsal.

A comedy skit rehearsal?

Well, let's back it up for a bit of context.

LeeAnn Tweeden is a young woman who wanted fame and fortune (who doesn't?) and her good looks were a possible ticket to that end.

All good, and nothing bad is implied.
She wanted to be an actress.  Excellent. Here's her bio on IMDb:

Born to parents of Spanish, Filipino, and Norwegian ancestry, Miss Tweeden grew up in Virginia as a self-proclaimed "tomboy". After graduating from Osbourn Park Senior High in 1991, she pursued a career in modeling. Upon moving to Colorado Springs, Colorado, she worked briefly as a Hooters waitress before winning her modeling job, gaining first place in the Venus International Model Search in 1992. From there, she traveled the United States doing promotional appearances and hosted the 1993 Venus Model Search competition, which she returned to host in 1994, 1995, 1996 and 1997. During this time, she relocated to Los Angeles, modeling for Fredericks of Hollywood, Hooters (appearing in their 1993 & 1994 calendars), Playboy magazine (as a cover girl), and Playboy's Book of Lingerie, in the November/December 1994 issue. She also appeared in the video Edenquest: Pamela Anderson (1995). In 1996, she landed a spot on the ESPN2 show Fitness Beach (1998), as well as a layout in the August 1996 issue of Playboy magazine. In 1997, she was chosen as the model for the lead character in a No Mercy comic book, titled "Coven 13". She continued modeling for various magazines, including Playboy, and put out her first calendar in 1998, featuring the photographs of Mario Barberio.

Returning to the small screen, she became a regular on the half-hour Fox Sports Net/Speed Channel motor-cross show High Octane (2002) and also hosted Fox Sports Net's Bluetorch TV (2000), an extreme sports show. In addition, Leeann was a correspondent for an installment of E!'s Wild On... (1997) series. She can currently be seen on The Best Damn Sports Show Period (2001) also on Fox Sports Net, and her pictorials can be found all over the Internet.

Here's her web site where she sells para-cord bracelets, posters, magazines, and post cards of herself.

I am not judging her choices, but I can say I am glad my daughter made different ones.

To Ms. Tweeden's credit, she has done a number of USO tours, which is a way for grade B, C, and D celebrities, comics, show girls, and Dallas Cowboy Cheerleaders to get a little more exposure.

It was on one of these USO tours that, she alleges, Al Franken kissed her in an unwanted way during a skit rehearsal in which kissing was to be part of the sight-gag.

What she describes is gross and wrong, but so far no one has come forward to vouch for a contemporaneous accounting of it, nor has anyone come forward to say Al Franken has a habit of doing this kind of thing. Maybe they will tomorrow, or the next day, or five days from now. Can we wait and see?

This last part is important.

Grabbers, fondlers, mashers, and perverts are not "one and done" kind of people.

Whether it is Bill Clinton or Roy Moore, Jim Bakker or Kevin Spacey, Bill Cosby or Dan Crane, Donald Trump or Elliot Spitzer, Bob Packwood or Anthony Weiner, Harvey Weinstein or Jimmy Savile, there tends to be a pattern and practice when it comes to sex.

Is there a pattern and practice with Al Franken? Time will tell. If there is, the metaphorical hanging tree will be ready. But let's give it a week and see, eh?

A rush to judgement is called a lynching, and there's no place for that when there is (as of this writing at 9:50 pm) so little corroborating evidence, or other examples voiced by other women, outside of this one comedy skit routine.

If all it takes is one person to make a claim in order to destroy a career without evidence, then all of civilization is well and truly dead.

To be clear, I am not saying I do not believe LeeAnn Tweeden.

What I am saying is that there is no reason to voice belief or disbelief this early in the game. Al Franken has a pretty long and exemplary history in the public eye. LeeAnn Tweeden's exposure has been a bit... different.

Which is not to say LeeAnn Tweeden is lying.

It is to say that it does not take much research to wonder if politics might be involved in this particular instance.

This case is not parallel to the Roy Moore case no matter how convenient the timing.

The Roy Moore story had 30 sources at the start, with half a dozen women (all of them Republicans) who did not know each other, and who were each independently discovered and interviewed by The Washington Post.

None of these women volunteered themselves, and all told more-or-less the same story.

Since then, we have learned that Roy Moore was such a raging pedophile and reprobate that the local mall had banned him from admission. The Alabama papers are now on the story like a terrier on a rat.

Ms. Tweeden's story is of a lesser quality. She thrust herself out there, she is highly partisan and, as of now, we have no other contemporaneous corroboration, nor has there (yet) been any surge of people telling similar stories.

This is not to say that Franken is in the clear, but "one swallow does not a season make."

One 11-year old allegation of an unwanted style of a scripted kiss during a comedy skit rehearsal is interesting, but not very determinate. If two more credible people show up with similar stories, then Senator Franken is in trouble.

We shall see.


As for Ms. Tweeden's story, one does not have to believe her, or disbelieve her, to wonder at how many times she has appeared on Fox TV's Sean Hannity show, and what her relationship with him really is.









Hannity is a notorious liar and a Putin Puppet of the first order. Ms. Tweeden is herself a "birther" who claims Barack Obama was born in Kenya.

Are we to ignore this chummy and highly partisan association entirely?

It sure is a... coincidence.  Statistically it's about as likely as finding out that every other person entering and leaving the White House is a Russian.

Finally, I am reminded of the reason we do not rush to judgment in matters of importance.

I write from Virginia, where the University of Virginia was tarred and feathered based on an incredibly reckless and never-fact-checked piece in Rolling Stone magazine that alleged a young woman was gang-raped at a fraternity.

In fact, the young woman did not even exist, but the rush to judgement by the Loony Left was so quick that this reality was washed-over by the self-righteous who were hell-bent on outrage that anyone would even question this woman (who did not even exist) or say "hold on, let's check this reporter out a bit more."

Rushing for the rope without slowing down to consider the quality of the evidence or the likelihood of the transgression is the very definition of a lynching.

But don't take my word for it; ask Emmett Till.

Emmett Till was the young black man who was hung based on the testimony of a white woman who said he raped her. That woman has now said that she lied. But you know what? Emmett Till is still very dead. And you know why? Because folks were a little too quick to rush to judgment.

So, to get back to it, there IS a place for hanging, but there is no place for a lynching.

The testimony of anyone should be listened to and not ignored.

But neither guilt nor innocence requires action without evidence or process.

The rope and the tree can wait for a few days. 

In fact it must, or else this nation is well and truly lost.

Fox at the Door



The wee ones want to go outside and chase a fox in the back yard.

The Failure of Fenton's Owner



I am told that the "Brits are celebrating the 6-year anniversary of a dog chasing some deer."

The celebration involves the posting of the now famous "Fenton" video in which a man's dog bolts off to chase a herd of deer across a very busy multi-lane highway.

Ha ha!

Did the deer die?
How about the dog? Any humans killed or cars wrecked?  How many limbs mangled?

Oh yes, this video is a laugh riot.


Here's the background to this story: a lot of British dogs are not reliable off-lead, the same as a lot of American dogs are not reliable off-lead.

The result is a lot of lost dogs, dead dogs in the road, dead cats on the porch, kids with serious bites, and a heck of a lot of sheep-worrying going on in rural parts of Britain.


In all fairness, it's not easy to train a game-bred dog to not chase wildlife and farm stock, and it's nearly impossible if all you have to use as a tool is a treat bag and an all-positive training manual.

Karen Pryor, the queen of clickers, who now sells franchise dog training opportunities across the nation, never got her own Border Terrier to stop chasing squirrels, and she could not even keep her own terrier in the yard until she put an Invisible Fence shock collar on it.

The good news is that technology has come along to help.

For example, a flexi-lead is pure crap as walking leash, but in the right hands, it is a very useful tool for teaching recall.

Of course, teaching recall is only half the job.

PROOFING recall is the other half.

A recall for a dog cannot be a suggestion; it has to be a Commandment.

When you tell a dog to "down" or "come," it has to be so solid that you know for certain that you can walk your dog past squirrels and deer right next to the freeway.

Fenton's owner failed Fenton in this regard.

So what's the good news?

The modern e-collar.

These are not the cheap Chinese jobs sold on Ebay, and which are based on 40-year old off-patent design. These modern collars are more expensive (about $200) and come from companies like E-Collar Technologies and Dogtra, with 100 levels of stimulation, as well as tone and vibration.

These things work like new money provided you follow directions, start with some actual actual training (see flexi-lead, above), and use a very low "tap" level of stimulation (which is actually much less aversive than the vibration mode).

Heads up, however.  When it comes to modern e-collars  there is a very vocal cabal of dog trainers who make their living based on a dependency model. 

For these "pure positive" dog trainers, "time is money" and it's YOUR money and time that they are most interested in getting a great deal more of. 

The efficiency of e-collars are a threat to their business model.

To be clear, an e-collar is not a universal spanner that fixes every nut.

You still have to learn how to train a dog, and an e-collar is just like a 6-foot leash, a bag of kibble, a harness, a flat collar, a slide collar, or a pinch collar in that it can be abused by fools and willful ignorants. 

But can it save lives and could it transform the life of dogs like Fenton and his owner?  Oh yes! Absolutely.

The Internet, 1917



100 years ago, this was the Internet.

Jesus Wept



The Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, are pretty liberal. Of course you would have to read them to know that

Wednesday, November 15, 2017

The Urban Foxes Are Out of Control

Old Gardens and Young Men


As an old man, I will be a young gardener.

The line is not my own, but within those 10 words is a lot of story.

I have bought and sold a number of houses over the course of my life, and with each one I have been cognizant that while I was sure to make this yard my own, I should also pay attention to the fact that 250 years of gardeners had already worked my home soil.

Why were the drains placed where they were?

Why was this tree chosen for this location, and why had it survived when clearly there had been other options and other trees that had not made the cut?

Look at the ancient bush sprawled next to the path. Was that wisdom or ignorance, industry or sloth, inspiration or failure of imagination? And how was I to know?

What is certain is that every garden has mistakes.

I can say with some confidence that an ancient magnolia planted in my own yard 40 years ago was a very bad idea. The ground on top of my hill is too dry, the climate too cold. My hill is not a swamp, and I do not live in South Carolina.

With equal certainty, however, I can say that a pile of winter sticks in the far corner of my yard is a beautiful bush in August, and that the slate path set in mortar in my back yard is of a clever design that drains sheets of water off the hill in a heavy rain.

I would never know why things are the way they are if I had not spent a year observing and listening to the gardeners that came before.

And so it is in nature, I suppose.

Before we chainsaw and plow, rip and drain, build and burn, perhaps we should be required to study the land for four full seasons so that we can truly understand what is in the yard -- and why -- before we move to sweep it all aside.

There were gardeners here before us.  Surely they were not all crazy, hazy, stupid or blind? 

.

Tuesday, November 14, 2017

Please Do Not Feed the Animals





Lyme Disease is Rare and Easy to Treat



The above map shows each confirmed case of Lyme disease between 2008 and 2015, with each dot placed in the patient's home county. Nationwide, there were more than 30,000 cases — including unconfirmed reports — of the tick-borne illness annually during this period.

Although those clusters of cases in the Northeast and the upper Midwest might look a bit alarming, there's good news: Reported rates of Lyme disease contraction have been stable or decreasing in these regions, according to new data from the CDC. Researchers aren't sure, though, whether that's because the disease is actually on the downturn or because of changes in how states report cases.

The odds are less than 1 in 10,000 nationally or, to put it another way, you have twice as high a chance of hitting a hole in one or to slip, fall, and kill yourself in the shower this year.

As the folks over at Science News note:

  • Not all ticks carry Lyme disease, and those that do have to be attached 36 to 48 hours to transmit the disease -- that's a very long time to be on a human who actually showers once a day.

  • Lyme disease is generally easy to treat, and if it's not easy to treat, it may not be Lyme which is why science has shown that in those cases, lengthy courses of antibiotics don’t seem to help. Most Lyme disease presents, or does not present, in such a mild form that it passes without notice; a human or dog seems a bit run down for a day or two, and then their immune system kicks in, fights in back, an life continues on as before.

  • Prevention is easy; tuck in your pants, spray Deet bug spray on your pants legs before going out, check yourself over after coming back from forest or field, and wash your dogs in Pyrethrin shampoo and check them over a few days after coming back from forest or field.
Want to know more, especially about Lyme disease testing and vaccination? Read The Billion Dollar Lyme Disease Scam from this blog.

The Kids Can Take Care of Themselves

Energy Through a System Organizes the System



My daughter flew down from her high-pressure job in NYC to spend two and a half days going door to door canvassing for voters here in Northern Virginia where she grew up.

The result of efforts like hers? A New York Times article about How the ‘Resistance’ Helped Democrats Dominate Virginia.

The foot traffic — not just the usual folks from D.C. or Maryland, but people who came from California, Florida and Iowa — was so steady that the campaign began to run out of clipboards. Volunteers would arrive, muddy and soaked, peel off their clear ponchos and hand over their unreadably macerated voter rolls. By midafternoon, they were almost finished with the fifth complete pass they’d done, over their 11-day “mobilization window,” of all 10,000 doors in their universe. Most returnees declared that everyone on their lists had either voted already or was just waiting for a spouse to come watch the kids; some of them stopped Sorenson to tell her stories about how they took a moment at the end of their shifts to circle back around and check on these promissory replies, and more often than not they encountered “I voted” stickers. Then they’d be handed a new packet and sent back out into the rain. Someone in need of reprieve asked Sorenson when she planned to wrap things up for the day. “When do you stop? If your nearest polling place closes at 7:00 and is two minutes away, you stop at 6:58.”

My daughter also flew to Houston to help hurricane victims there after the storm put people under 5 feet of water. 

To quote Pete Townsend: the kids are alright.

The Continuing Crisis



I don’t blame the Republican party. I’m divided about these Alabama sex clams too. Truthfully, I am torn between horror and amazement. What is wrong with people?

Monday, November 13, 2017

Winter Wear for Bald Men


Bill Heavey writes for 
Field and Stream, and he notes that bald men need at least four types of winter hats:

  • The House Hat. Bill's is an olive green SmartWool beanie; mine is a Moroccan taqiyah or round skullcap, one of several I acquired in Morocco.
  • The Man-About-Town Hat. Bills is from from Kohl’s and is a Chinese-made something-or-other from Tek Gear. Mine is "Men's Classic Herringbone Tweed Wool Blend Newsboy Ivy Hat" bought on Amazon for under $12.
  • The Carhartt 40-Gram Thinsulate-Lined Hat. Bill's uses this type of hat. Mine is one of any number of very heavy knit caps that are long enough to cover my ears. I sometimes pair it with a fleece neck gaitor that comes up to leave very little uncovered.
  • The Arctic Spaceman Balaclava. Bill and I both like lightweight balaclavas under another hat to keep wind from blowing up or down the collar on really cold days.  I use these about 10 days a year, tops.

Fields and Falls





Just playing around with the panorama setting on my iPhone 7.  These two pictures are from Sunday -- click to  enlarge. 

Shooting Falling Water on an iPhone


This is a lock on the C&O Canal. I've been playing with my new iPhone 7 camera, and learning a few new tricks that come with this gadget, including making flowing water look like this using the "Live Photos" and "long exposure" part of iOS 11.

Death Above the Highway


These are Black Vultures jungled up in a tree over the highway.  It was a cold morning, and they were not going to be able to soar for at least an hour or two, yet the abundance of roadkill and gut-shot deer is keeping them in the area longer than is probably normal absent the presence of cars and guns.

Twenty years ago, all the vultures around here were red-headed Turkey Vultures, but global warning seems to have moved the Black Vultures north from the Carolinas and points South.  Not nearly as many Turkey Vultures are around any more.

The Fall was over in a blink.  In 10 days we went from full trees to bare branches thanks to a cold snap and rain.  The mixed flocks of black birds are starting to assemble and move south in numbers, and the Saw Whet owls are coming down from Canada now, but the Robins are still hopping about, though they too appear to be assembling.

A group of vultures is called a committee, venue or volt if in a tree or an a cliff or barn roof. In flight, soaring in a circle, they are called a kettle, but when the birds are feeding together on a roadside deer or downer cow, it's called a wake.

A River Runs Through the U.S. Capitol



No, this is not the mighty Zambezi; this is the Potomac River about two miles up from my house. This is only part of the flow.



All of this water and more rolls past the cliffs below my house.



If you put a boat in the water just below my house, up river from Georgetown in Washington, D.C., you can sail to Paris, London, Stockholm, Cape Town, Hong Kong, or Tierra del Fuego.

Sunday, November 12, 2017

Instruction from God to Dog Owners



These are the signs outside of the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York City.

Welcome to Colorado



This is a real road sign in Fountain, Colorado.

When Airedales Were the Dogs of War











Edwin Hautenville Richardson trained Airedales to be military service dogs in Britain during World War I. Richardson's Airedales were used in both World Wars to find the wounded and carry medicine out to the injured, to carry messages, as guard dogs, and even to pull gun and barbed-wire laying carriages.

Tracking the Mammoth



These are the fruit of the Osage Orange, which is not only great wood for primitive long bows and fence posts, but are the living legacy of Mammoths that once roamed these hedges.

Saturday, November 11, 2017

Friday, November 10, 2017

Preparing Two Old School Deben Collars


Two of my ancient Deben collars finally died, leaving me with just two working collars. I picked up these two old-style Deben locators from Steve H. yesterday. They came complete with o-rings, locator box, batteries, and a nice little bag to hold them. I put in new batteries and the knockers knock like they’re fresh from the factory. The larger collar is for terriers, and the smaller for ferrets.

These collars just needs a little epoxy to fix the "planned factory defect" you can see in both of them, below.



Deben intentionally made the wires run to the outside where, with very little scraping, they can be shorted out and allow water to enter the collar. A little JB-Weld epoxy, and that defect is fixed.



The wee ferret collar was fitted to Steve's small miniature dachshund. I've never had one of these ferret collars before, but since most of my digs are shallow (under 4 feet) and Moxie is under 9 pounds, I’m thinking this will be a good backup for her. A very small locator!

A Parade of Malevolent Misfits



The Trump administration is a parade of malevolent misfits, broken souls, and incoherent babblers.

If we were told that three dead hookers had been found buried in the backyard of a White House staffer, the only question would be which one? You can plug in almost any name and there would be no real surprise. Steve Bannon? Check. Carter Page? Check. Michael D. Cohen? Check. Steve Miller? Check. Eric Trump? Check. Michael Flynn and son? Check. Sebastian Gorka? Check. Roger Stone? Check.

Everyone can see it; it’s a parade of creepy people whose commonality across the spectrum seems to be intellectual and emotional dysfunction.

Every, staffer, nominee or associate is incompetent, lazy, incurious, and overtly malevolent, from Donald Trump to Betsy Devos, from Melania Trump to Paul Manafort, and from Anthony Scaramuchi to Corey Lewandowski. Ben Carter seems to be swimming in an ether of beta-blockers. Sara Huckabee Sanders has the kind of detachment-inside- chaos that one would expect from someone whose brother first hanged and then slit the throat of a dog for the fun of watching it die.

The good news, if there is any, is that these folks are so dim-witted as to leave fingerprints all over the crime scene, and Special Prosecutor Robert Mueller is on them like a terrier on a rat. I have seen Mueller, and I would not bet on the rats!

Trump Is In Vietnam on Veteran's Day


In a plot twist that even Oliver Stone would not dare to write, Mr. Trump is in Danang, Vietnam on Veteran's day where he is kow-towing to both Russia and China.

The White House made no mention of the "heel spurs" that seemed to have vanished the day after Mr. Trump used them for a Vietnam War draft deferrment (he got five, four for college and one for bad feet).

Meanwhile, Special Prosecutor Robert Mueller (U.S. Marine Corps Vietnam veteran, Purple Heart, Bronze Star) closes in, tighter and tighter.

The Wall Street Journal reports that Mueller and his team of crack-shot lawyers is investigating Michael Flynn and his son who allegedly were enticed by a $15 million foreign-government payout to plan the kidnapping of a Turkish cleric living in the U.S. in order to have him delivered to Turkey where he would be jailed and tortured. Again, this is The Wall Street Journal reporting this. Flynn was, at the time, on the payroll of the Turkish government as an illegal and unregistered foreign agent who was soon to be tapped to be Mr. Trump's National Security Adviser.

The iPhone 7 Has a Zoom?




I just discovered by new iPhone 7 Plus has two lenses and a real optical zoom. It's only a 2X zoom (my Nikon is 90X) but it's still nice to have. No manual comes with these phones, so it’s a lifetime of happy surprises.

Self-Directed

Thursday, November 09, 2017

The Truth About Consequences



Operant conditioning was featured in the television sit-com The Big Bang Theory, above, but of course it finds its way into our news cycle every day (see today's news headlines appended at bottom of this post).  

Notice what Sheldon says about the relative speed of using pleasant rewards alone, as compared to a more balanced approach that pairs rewards with less pleasant consequences. 

Of course in the real world things are a little less simple than the scenario presented here, and many issues have to be factored in, such as what behavior is being shaped, how long it has been going on, whether it is neutral, or whether it is strongly self-rewarding.

For example, would chocolate alone have been enough to prevent Leonard and Penny from having a sexual liaison?  Don't count on it!  

Would it be possible to "train a different behavior" for Leonard and Penny and have it reliably stop all geek love?  Don't count on it!

What if the behavior that Penny was presenting was not just annoying -- it was extremely dangerous to her, and a single wayward incident could kill her?   Would it be OK to engage in a little aversion then?

This last question is not a contrived situation, but one which Karen Pryor glosses over in her book Lads Before the Wind: Diary of a Dolphin Trainer.

The porpoises and whale themselves, in their quests for entertainment, often created problems. One summer a fashion developed in the training tanks (I think Keiki started it) for leaning out over the tank wall and seeing how far you could balance without falling out. Several animals might be teetering on the tank edge at one time, and sometimes one or another did fall out. Nothing much happened to them, except maybe a cut or a scrape from the gravel around the tanks; but of course we had to run and pick them up and put them back in. Not a serious problem, if the animal that fell out was small, but if it was a 400-pound adult bottlenose, you had to find four strong people to get him back, and when it happened over and over again, the people got cross. We feared too, that some animal would fall out at night or when no one was around and dry out, overheat, and die. We yelled at the porpoises, and rushed over and pushed them back in when we saw them teetering, but that just seemed to add to the enjoyment of what I'm sure the porpoises thought of as a hilariously funny game. Fortunately they eventually tired of it by themselves.

Yes,  fortunately, they eventually tired of it by themselves.   

Fortunately.

One has to wonder, however, if perhaps a little aversive natural consequences had something to do with it. 

For instance, what about those scrapes and cuts?  If a trainer did those that would be horrible, but if the animal did it to itself and changed its behavior by itself, can we then say "fortunately"?  

And what if the trainers were a bit late or a bit slow to get a porpoise back into the tank?  Did the animals get both hot and uncomfortable?  If a trainer did that on purpose, of course, that would be horrible and cruel, but if it was simply "one of those things" and the animal learned and changed its behavior, then can we use the word "fortunately" again?

And what if we have the exact same situation, but instead of a porpoise, it's a dog climbing out of its kennel?   Freedom for a dog (especially an intact male that can smell a female in heat) is a very self-rewarding behavior, and most dog owners have had a dog climb out of a kennel as a result.  The age old solution is a fabric kennel cover and a hot wire.  Is it OK for an owner to put in a hot wire to create an "unnatural" consequence that, to the dog, will seem as natural as any other?  If not, why not?  If so, why so?   Does it matter that the dog may die if it gets out even once?


 

OPERANT CONDITIONING IN THE NEWS

Natural Consequences Are Well Remembered


“Experience: that most brutal of teachers. But you learn, my God do you learn.” ― C.S. Lewis